Electrical information is conducted through the body along neurons. But neurons are not infinitely long (although some can be pretty long and measure above 1 m in length) and they “synapse” on each other.
The problem is that at the point of synaptic junction there is a “gap” between the first neuron and the subsequent one. This gap is called the synaptic cleft (it’s 10nm~20nm large).
5 Steps to Chemical Synaptic Transmission
In a gist:
- The electrical signal cannot “jump” over that gap. Instead, at the point of synaptic junction between two neurons, the presynaptic neuron (at the presynaptic terminal) “translates” the electrical signal into a chemical message (the neurotransmitter) – Step 1 & 2.
- That chemical diffuses (“swims”) across the synaptic cleft until it reaches the other neuron – Step 2 & 3.
- The other neuron then “translates” the chemical signal back into an electrical one – Step 3 & 4.
- The chemical message is degraded – Step 5.
This “new” electrical message can now travel down the neuron until it reaches a new synaptic junction.
Let’s look at these 5 steps in more detail.
Step 1 – Neurotransmitter Synthesis
There are two general classes of neurotransmitters: large neuropeptides or smaller amines/amino acids.
The large peptides are synthesized in the cell body of the neuron and are transported to the synaptic terminal through the axon.
The smaller amines/amino acids can generally be synthesized at the presynaptic terminal itself.
Step 2 & 3- Neurotransmitter Packaging and Release
Once the neurotransmitters are synthesized, they need to be put into “small groups” ready to be “launched” across the synaptic cleft.
In neurobiological terms, we say that the neurotransmitters need to be packaged into vesicles.
Here is what happens:
The small groups of neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft when they receive an order from Ca 2+ ions to do so.
When the electrical signal reaches the presynaptic terminal, it opens some channels in the membrane (these are called voltage gated Ca 2+ channels). Once these channels are open, calcium ions from the surrounding extracellular environment rush into the presynaptic terminal.
As the calcium ions encounter the vesicles, the membrane of the vesicles fuse with the membrane of the presynaptic terminal, right at the synaptic cleft.
As the vesicles fuse with the membrane, the neurotransmitters are “expelled” into the synaptic cleft.
Step 4 – Neurotransmitter Binding
The neurotransmitters can now “swim” (diffuse) through the synaptic cleft, until they reach the postsynaptic neuron.
The membrane of the postsynaptic neuron contains a few channels (receptors) that control how a neurotransmitter can be translated into an electrical signal.
Step 5 – Stopping the Chemical Signal
Once the chemical / neurotransmitter signal has been translated into an electrical signal, the postsynaptic receptors need to be “cleared” very quickly so that they can receive new transmitters from new signals (otherwise you’d end up with neurotransmitter traffic worse than any traffic you’ve ever experienced on the freeway!).
Some neurotransmitters will be degraded, some will be transported back to the presynaptic terminal to be recycled, and sometimes they are “absorbed” by the postsynaptic terminal…
Here are the minimum points you need to remember on the steps to chemical synaptic transmission:
- In order to “jump” across two neurons, the electrical signal needs to be converted into a chemical one then back into an electrical one.
- Synaptic transmission is a 5 step process.
- Synthesis of the chemical message – Neurotransmitter synthesis
- Grouping of the chemical message – Neurotransmitter packaging
- Release to the neurotransmitter
- Translating the chemical message back into an electrical one at the postsynaptic membrane
- “Clearing” of the postsynaptic receptors.
If you want more articles and videos about the Nervous System, you can find them here. More resources are available to help make Biology fun. I invite you to absorb all the content you can find here at Interactive-Biology.com.
Thank you for such informative details.Keep posting such things in the future.
And please tell me the place to find these awesome images.THANK YOU
Thank you for such a great comment!! I’ll do my best to keep my articles clear and informative. 🙂
The image in this post is from a website called “canstockphoto.com,” but you have to buy the images in order to use them.
In the last point where when the message is again translated into the electric signals,the neurotransmitters are then degraded.
How should I say this so for different electrical signals there must be different strength and probably the number of neurotransmitters binding and their time to convert the chemical message into electrical one.
I hope you understand my point
Yes, a lot of things will affect the “strength”of the “synaptic signal. A few of them include:
1. The number of neurotransmitter per vesicles
2. The number of vesicles released
3.The number of receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
4. The kind of receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
5. How fast the neurotransmitter is released or degraded after it has binder to the postsynaptic receptor.
Thank goodness for this website, i was having all kinds of difficulty undestanding the nervous system. This site is helping me with my midterm..THANK YOU BUNCHES !!!
I’m so happy I found this! This is incredibly helpful – thanks!
IT CLEARED MY DOUBTS VERY VERY VERY NICELY……………………………………………