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Neuron


Noun, pl. neurons

1. An electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. A chemical signal occurs via a synapse, a specialized connection with other cells. Neurons connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. (wikipedia.org)

2. A cell of the nervous system, which conducts nerve impulses; consisting of an axon and several dendrites. Neurons are connected by synapses. (wiktionary.org)

3. One of the cells that constitute nervous tissue, that have the property of transmitting and receiving nervous impulses, and that are composed of somewhat reddish or grayish protoplasm with a large nucleus containing a conspicuous nucleolus, irregular cytoplasmic granules, and cytoplasmic processes which are highly differentiated frequently as multiple dendrites or usually as solitary axons and which conduct impulses toward and away from the nerve cell body. (merriam-webster.com)

4. An excitable cell specialised for the transmission of electrical signals over long distances. Neurons receive input from sensory cells or other neurons and send output to muscles or other neurons. Neurons with sensory input are called sensory neurons, neurons with muscle outputs are called motoneurons, neurons that connect only with other neurons are called interneurons. Neurons connect with each other via synapses. Neurons can be the longest cells known, a single axon can be several metres in length. Although signals are usually sent via action potentials, some neurons are nonspiking. A cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses. (biology-online.org)

Syn: neurone, nerve cell

Word origin: From German Neuron, from Greek neuron, comb. form of neuron “nerve,” originally “sinew, tendon, cord, bowstring,” also “strength, vigor.”

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