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Muscle

/ˈməsəl/ Noun 1. A soft tissue found in most animals containing protein filaments that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion. They are primarily responsible for maintenance of and changes in posture, locomotion of the organism itself, as well as movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart and movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis. (wikipedia.org) 2. Muscle cells are specialized to generate force and movement. There are three types of muscle tissue: (1) skeletal muscle, (2) smooth muscle, and (3) cardiac muscle. 3. An organ composed of muscle tissue. (wiktionary.org) 4. A band or bundle of fibrous tissue in a human or animal body that has the ability to contract, producing movement in or maintaining the position of parts of the body. (Google Dictionary) 5. A contractile form of tissue which animals use to effect movement. (wiktionary.org) Verb 1. Move (an object) in a particular direction by using one’s physical strength. (Google Dictionary) 2. Coerce by violence or by economic or political pressure. (Google Dictionary) Word origin: From Latin musculus “a muscle,” literally “little mouse,” diminutive of mus...

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Mutation

/myo͞oˈtāSHən/ Noun, pl. mutations 1. A change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extra-chromosomal genetic element. Mutations result from unrepaired damage to DNA or to RNA genomes (typically caused by radiation or chemical mutagens), from errors in the process of replication, or from the insertion or deletion of segments of DNA by mobile genetic elements. Mutations may or may not produce discernible changes in the observable characteristics (phenotype) of an organism. Mutations play a part in both normal and abnormal biological processes, including evolution, cancer, and the development of the immune system. (wikipedia.org) 2. A permanent, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence in a gene or a chromosome; the process in which such a change occurs in a gene or in a chromosome. (biology-online.org) 3. The changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes. (Google Dictionary) 4. Any alteration or change. (wiktionary.org) 5. Any heritable change of the base-pair sequence of genetic material. (wiktionary.org) 6. A mutant. (wiktionary.org) 7.An alteration a particular sound of a word, especially the initial consonant, which is triggered by the word’s morphological or syntactic context and not by its phonological context. (wiktionary.org) Word origin:...

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Mutualism

/ˈmyo͞oCHo͞oəˌlizəm/ Noun 1. The way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits. Similar interactions within a species are known as co-operation. Mutualism is a type of symbiosis. (wikipedia.org) 2. Symbiotic interaction between different species that is mutually beneficial. (wikipedia.org) 3. Any interaction between two species that benefits both; typically involves the exchange of substances or services. (wiktionary.org) 4. The relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other. (wordnetweb.princeton.edu) Word origin: from Latin mutuus “reciprocal, done in...

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