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/ˌgastrō(k)ˈnēmēəs/ Noun, pl. gastrocnemii 1. The muscle at the back of the calf, whose insertion is the Achilles tendon at the heel. ( 2. A very powerful superficial bipennate muscle that is in the back part of the lower leg. It runs from its two heads just above the knee to the heel, and is involved in standing, walking, running and jumping. Along with the soleus muscle it forms the calf muscle. Its function is plantar flexing the foot at the ankle joint and flexing the leg at the knee joint. ( 3. Origin, by two heads (lateral and medial) from the lateral and medial condyles of the femur; insertion, with soleus by tendo calcaneus into lower half of posterior surface of calcaneus; action, plantar flexion of foot; nerve supply, tibial. ( 4. The chief muscle of the calf of the leg, which flexes the knee and foot. It runs to the Achilles tendon from two heads attached to the femur (Google Dictionary) Syn: musculus gastrocnemius, gastrocnemius Word origin: From Latinized form of Greek gastroknemia “calf of the leg,” from gaster “belly” + kneme “leg.” So called for its...

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(jēn) Noun, pl. genes 1. The biologic unit of heredity, self-reproducing and located at a definite position (locus) on a particular chromosome. (Dorland’s Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders) 2. A hereditary unit that occupies a specific location on a chromosome, determines a particular characteristic in an organism by directing the formation of a specific protein, and is capable of replicating itself at each cell division. (The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company) 3. A building block of inheritance, which contains the instructions for the production of a particular protein, and is made up of a molecular sequence found on a section of DNA. Each gene is found on a precise location on a chromosome. (Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.) 4. The biologic unit of inheritance, consisting of a particular nucleotide sequence within a DNA molecule that occupies a precise locus on a chromosome and codes for a specific polypeptide chain. In diploid organisms, which include humans and other mammals, genes occur as paired alleles. Kinds of genes include complementary genes, mutant genes, operator genes, pleiotropic genes, regulator genes, structural genes, and supplementary genes. See also chromosome, cistron, deoxyribonucleic acid, operon. (Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.)   Word origin: From Greek, genein, to...

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Genetic linkage

/ˈliNGkij/ Noun, pl. genetic linkages 1. The property of genes of being inherited together. ( 2. The tendency of genes that are located proximal to each other on a chromosome to be inherited together during meiosis. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked. ( 3. The term refers to the fact that certain genes tend to be inherited together, because they are on the same chromosome. Thus parental combinations of characters are found more frequently in offspring than nonparental. Linkage is measured by the percentage recombination between loci, unlinked genes showing 50% recombination. ( 4. Traits that tend to be inherited together as a consequence of an association between their genes; all of the genes of a given chromosome are linked (where one goes they all go)....

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Noun 1. A discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms. ( 2. The branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics, in particular chromosomes and DNA. ( 3. Branch of Biology that deals the study of genes and heredity ( 4. The study of the patterns of inheritance of specific traits. Relating to genes and genetic information. Modern theories explain how traits are passed down from parent to offspring. ( Supplement: The first to test this theory was Gregor Mendel, a monk from Austria who tried to explain why some pea plants were short and some were tall, but none were in between. He placed nets over the plants so no bees or flies could pollinate the plants. Pea plants are one of the few plants capable of self pollination, so Mendel tried this with short plants and all were short, so he expected that the same thing would happen with the tall plants. But when he tried it, 75% were tall and 25% were short. This was when he used a Punnett Square. A Punnett Square is a model used to predict the possible outcomes of offspring. (   Syn: heredity Word origin: From Ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos, “genitive” and that from γένεσις genesis,...

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/ˈjēnyəl/  /-nēəl/ Adjective (Anatomy) 1. Genian; relating to the chin. ( (General) 1. Friendly and cheerful. ( 2. Contributing to, or concerned in, propagation or production; generative; procreative; productive. ( 3. Contributing to, and sympathizing with, the enjoyment of life; sympathetically cheerful and cheering; jovial and inspiring joy or happiness; exciting pleasure and sympathy; enlivening; kindly; as, she was of a cheerful and genial disposition. ( 4. (Especially of weather) pleasantly mild and warm. ( 5. Marked by genius. ( 6. Belonging to one’s genius or natural character; native; natural; inborn. ( 7. Belonging to one’s genius or natural character; native; natural; inborn. ( Word origin: Latin Genialis: cf. OF. Genial....

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