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Diabetes mellitus

/məˈlītəs/  /ˈmeli-/ Noun 1. A group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). There are three main types of diabetes mellitus (DM). Type 1 DM results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and currently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”. Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”. The third main form, gestational diabetes occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM. Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes. ( 2. Diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria. ( 3. Relative or absolute lack...

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/ˈdīəˌfram/ Noun, pl. diaphragms (Anatomy) 1. In mammals, a sheet of muscle separating the thorax from the abdomen, contracted and relaxed in respiration to draw air into and expel air from the lungs; also called thoracic diaphragm.( 2. A dome-shaped, muscular partition separating the thorax from the abdomen in mammals. It plays a major role in breathing, as its contraction increases the volume of the thorax and so inflates the lungs. (Google Dictionary) 3. Any of various membranes or sheets of muscle or ligament which separate one cavity from another. ( 4. A contraceptive device consisting of a flexible cup, used to cover the cervix during intercourse. ( (Chemistry) 5. A permeable or semipermeable membrane. ( Word origin: From Ancient Greek διάφραγμα (diáphragma, “partition”); Greek dia = across, and phragma =...

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/dīˈafəsis/ Noun, pl. Diaphyses 1. The main or midsection (shaft) of a long bone. It is made up of cortical bone and usually contains bone marrow and adipose tissue (fat). ( 2. The central shaft of any long bone. ( 3. The body of a long bone between the growing regions near the ends. ( Word origin: Greek dia = apart, and physis =...

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/dīˈastl-ē/ Noun 1. The period of time when the heart refills with blood after systole (contraction). ( 2. The phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood. (Google Dictionary) 3. The widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood. ( 4. The time, in between ventricular contractions (systole), at which ventricular filling occurs. ( 5. (Italicized) A genus of air-breathing land snails or semi-slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Helicarionidae. Word origin: From New Latin diastole, itself based on Ancient Greek διαστολή (diastolē, “separation, drawing...

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