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Catabolism

/kəˈtabəˌlizəm/ Noun 1. The set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units to release energy and is related to wakefulness. In catabolism, large molecules such as polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins are broken down into smaller units such as monosaccharides, fatty acids, nucleotides, and amino acids, respectively. As molecules such as polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are made from long chains of these small monomer units (mono = one + mer = part), the large molecules are called polymers (poly = many). (wikipedia.org) 2. Destructive metabolism, usually including the release of energy and breakdown of materials. (wiktionary.org) 3. The breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy; destructive metabolism. (Google Dictionary) 4. A metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simple ones with the release of energy; destructive metabolism. Compare with anabolism. (Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged) 5. The destructive processes of chemical change in living organisms, characterized by the breaking down of complex substances into simpler ones, with a release of energy. (medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com) Word origin: From Greek katabole “a throwing down” (also “a foundation”), from kataballein “to throw down,” from kata- “down.” Greek cata-, “downward” + ballein “to...

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Catalyst

/ˈkatl-ist/ Noun, pl. catalysts 1. A substance capable of initiating or speeding up a chemical reaction. (biology-online.org) 2. A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change. ( Google...

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