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/ˈkarəˌpās/ Noun, pl. carapaces 1. A dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates such as turtles and tortoises. ( 2. Hard outer covering or case of certain organisms such as arthropods and turtles. ( 3. A hard protective covering of bone or chitin, especially one which covers the dorsal portion of an animal. ( Syn: shell Word origin: From French carapace (“tortoise shell”), from Portuguese carapaça (“carapace, shell”), of uncertain...

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Cardiac muscle

Noun 1. A type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium. Cardiac muscle is one of three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle. These three types of muscle all form in a process known as myogenesis. The cells that comprise cardiac muscle, called cardiomyocytes or myocardiocytes, only contain one, unique nucleus. Coordinated contractions of cardiac muscle cells in the heart propel blood out of the atria and ventricles to the blood vessels of the left/body/systemic and right/lungs/pulmonary circulatory systems. This complex of actions makes up the systole of the heart. ( 2. The striated and involuntary muscle of the vertebrate heart. ( 3. The muscle tissue of the heart; adapted to continued rhythmic contraction. ( 4. Are striated (but less distinct than skeletal muscles), and are involuntary. ( 5. Tissue specialised for contraction. ( 6. A striated but involuntary Muscle responsible for the pumping activity of the vertebrate heart. The individual muscle cells are joined through a junctional complex known as the intercalated disc and are not fused together into multinucleate structures as they are in skeletal muscle....

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Carnassial teeth

1. Are large teeth found in many carnivorous mammals, used for shearing flesh and bone in a scissor- or shear-like way. In the Carnivora, the carnassials are the modified fourth upper premolar and the first lower molar. These teeth are also referred to as sectorial teeth. ( 2. The last upper premolar and first lower molar teeth of a carnivore; having sharp edges for cutting flesh. ( Syn: Sectorial...

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/ˈkärnəˌvôr/ Noun, pl. carnivores 1. An organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging. ( 2. An animal that feeds on flesh. (Google Dictionary) 3. A mammal of the order Carnivora. (Google Dictionary) 4. A terrestrial or aquatic flesh-eating mammal. ( 5 An animal or plant (particularly insect- and invertebrate-eating plants) that requires a staple diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue through predation or scavenging. (   Word origin: Latin, carne meaning ‘flesh’ and vorare meaning ‘to...

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Noun 1. (Science: pathology) Connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulphate. It is more flexible and compressible than bone and often serves as an early skeletal framework, becoming mineralised as the animal ages. Cartilage is produced by chondrocytes that come to lie in small lacunae surrounded by the matrix they have secreted. ( 2. A flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs. ( 3. A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of chondrocytes embedded in a matrix that includes chondroitin sulfate and various types of fibrillar collagen. There are three major types: Hyaline Cartilage Fibrocartilage Elastic Cartilage ( Word origin: From French cartilage, from Latin...

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