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Noun, pl. neurons 1. An electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. A chemical signal occurs via a synapse, a specialized connection with other cells. Neurons connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. ( 2. A cell of the nervous system, which conducts nerve impulses; consisting of an axon and several dendrites. Neurons are connected by synapses. ( 3. One of the cells that constitute nervous tissue, that have the property of transmitting and receiving nervous impulses, and that are composed of somewhat reddish or grayish protoplasm with a large nucleus containing a conspicuous nucleolus, irregular cytoplasmic granules, and cytoplasmic processes which are highly differentiated frequently as multiple dendrites or usually as solitary axons and which conduct impulses toward and away from the nerve cell body. ( 4. An excitable cell specialised for the transmission of electrical signals over long distances. Neurons receive input from sensory cells or other neurons and send output to muscles or other neurons. Neurons with sensory input are called sensory neurons, neurons with muscle outputs are called motoneurons, neurons that connect only with other neurons are called interneurons. Neurons connect with each other via synapses. Neurons can be the longest cells known, a single axon can be several metres...

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The Neuron – Internal Structure

Now that we’ve covered the external structure of the coolest cell in the body–the neuron(!), let’s look at it’s internal structure. Smaller Structures Inside The Neuron Like most cells, the neuron contains: 1. A nucleus – that contains the chromatin and the genetic make-up of the organism. The nucleus is generally located in the soma of the cell. But, did you know that the nucleus in a neuron can “travel?” Like we said, the nucleus is generally located in the soma, but if the neuron gets injured, the nucleus will be found at the extremity of the cell. (An eccentrically located nucleus...

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The Neuron – External Structure and Classification

The Neuron The neuron is, in my opinion, the coolest cell type with the most mind blowing structure you could find in any organism. Period. The neuron’s main function is to transmit electrical signals (information) in one direction (dendrite to axon). The neuron is said to be polarized because information can only travel in a set direction (information cannot travel backwards). External Structure of the Neuron First, let’s take a look at the external structure of the most abundant type of neuron in the human body: the multipolar neuron. 1. Cell Body The cell body (a.k.a. the soma, in...

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