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030 How Eyes Work – An Introduction

In this video, Leslie explains all about how we are able to see with our eyes.

Enjoy!

Transcript of Today’s Episode

Hello and welcome to another episode of Interactive Biology TV, where we’re making biology fun! My name is Leslie Samuel. In this episode, Episode 30, I’m going to talk about how eyes work. I’m basically just going to give a little bit of an introduction to how eyes work and how we see, how vision takes place. Before I get into it, I want to give a shout-out to Sarah and the other students in Brain and Behavior at the University of Windsor. They are, right now, going through this content and she sent me a question coincidentally right before I was about to get into this content. So thanks for the questions, and I hope in the next week, I’ll be able to answer those in the videos that I’m going to be doing.

Before I talk about how the eyes work, let’s recap on Episode 29 where we spoke about how senses work. We spoke about the 5 senses, and we said that the general mechanism, the general overview in terms of how it works is: first, receptors are stimulated, then signals get sent to the brain, and then the brain interprets the signals that it’s receiving. This is the way you smell, the way you see, the way you feel and so on. So that’s the general overview. Now, let’s get into the specifics of vision.

Now, imagine this with me. You’re a college student, let’s say you’re a guy and you’re walking on campus, and all of a sudden, out of the corner of your eye, you see a very attractive young lady. She’s so attractive that she causes you to turn your head and take a full look, and you’re just looking at this beautiful lady in admiration. Let’s talk about what happens.

Here we have your eye. This may or may not look like your eye, but it’s going to work for the purposes that I need it for right now. So how this works is there’s got to be light. If there’s no light, you’re not going to see. Let’s say here we have the sun that’s shining, or this light source can be a light bulb, or anything of that sort. But let’s say the sun is shining, and the sun is sending off photons of light. The photons of light are coming in contact with this individual. It’s coming in contact with her hair, with her skin, with her eyes, with all of the parts of her body. As it comes in contact with her body, light is also being reflected, and that light that’s being reflected enters your eyes.

Now let’s look a little closer at this eye. Here we see that we have an opening. That opening is called the pupil. That is a result of what we call the iris, so that’s this section right here, what gives you your eye color. So this iris has pigment that makes the eye appear to be blue. I think this is pigment, at least, I’m not sure if it’s a contact lens or not. But let’s assume this is the natural color of the eye. So the pigment is going to cause it to appear blue.

Now, have you ever noticed that if you go outside and it’s really bright, you end up having to squint? But then after a while, you can see and it’s fine. The reason that happens is because here we have the iris that can dilate. Basically, what can happen is we can adjust the size of this hole. If it’s too bright outside, this will get smaller so that it doesn’t let as much light in. If it’s darker, you come inside a room or anything of that sort, that’s going to expand and the pupil is going to be larger. Now let’s move on from there and see what happens next.

So now we’re looking at your eye, and here you see once again, we have the pupil. Here, you can see iris, and here you can see we have a lens. Now, the cool thing about it is we have also this ciliary muscle here, and that can contract. What that basically does to the lens is it can expand the lens or make it so that you can focus the light onto the retina, and you can see the retina is over here.

So we want to focus on the retina, which is this layer of tissue to the back of the eye, and it goes all the way around. We want to focus the light onto that because in the retina, we have 2 types of pigments, and the pigments are rods and we have cones. You’ve probably heard of these before. The rods are what help us in black and white vision, and the cones help us with color vision. Of course, they work together, but the cones allow us to see color, it allows us to see fine detail. However, the cones aren’t as sensitive to light as the rods. So the rods are really sensitive to light. It doesn’t take much light in order for the rods to be activated, but it does take more in order for the cones to be activated.

You can think about it this way. If you are looking at someone, and let’s say you’re still looking at that young attractive lady and the sun is shining. Now, what happens when the sun goes down? You start to see a little less detail, it gets darker so you can’t see as much detail as you would if there was a lot of light outside. That’s because when you have less light, yes the rods are definitely being stimulated and they’re responding, but the cones need more light in order for you to see bright colors, in order for you to see fine detail. So you lose some detail as it gets darker in the room.

So we have the rods and cones in the retina, and the place where we have the most pigment would be in the fovea. We have especially a lot of cones in this area.

So let’s go back to the scenario we were at before, where you’re looking at this attractive young lady, and light is being reflected off that lady, and it is entering your pupil. It comes in here, it goes through the cornea. It enters your pupil, and it comes to the lens. Okay, I’m going to draw 3 rays of light coming in here.

As I showed you before, the ciliary muscles that are located up here and down here, of course, those can contract and cause the lens to focus the light exactly how you want it to be focused. Now, since we said that we have most of the pigment, especially the cones, we have most of the cones in the fovea, what we want to do then, as this light comes in, you want to contract the ciliary muscles in such a way that the lens focuses the light onto the retina in a way that you can see the details of that attractive young lady.

So the ciliary muscles contract and that causes the lens to then focus the light directly onto the retina, where you have all the rods and the cones, especially in this fovea area where you can see a lot more detail. That is where you want the light to be focused so that you can see that attractive lady, or if you’re reading a book, you want to be able to see the letters and you want to see all the details of the letters. So we want to focus that in the area where we have the maximum amount of cones possible.

Now, we’re going to talk a lot more about what happens inside the rods and cones in a future episode, but right now, I just want to give you a general overview. Light comes in, lens focuses the light onto the retina, then when that happens, that causes a signal in the optic nerve. That signal, of course, goes towards the brain, and as we showed before, the brain then interprets that signal.

Let’s say this process isn’t working very well. Let’s say there’s something wrong with the lens here, where it’s not doing its job at focusing the light onto the retina. What can you do about that? Well, what you can do about that is something that is done very often, somehow compensating for the lens not working well by wearing glasses. So what I’m going to do is, and I’m going to act as if, and forgive my drawing skills here, I’ve never drawn glasses before. But with glasses, what I’m doing is I am putting a lens in front of the eye that can help so that when the light comes in, it gets focused how I want it to be focused, and then I can see the detail that I couldn’t see because of how my lens is compromised.

So there’s going to be a lot of detail in terms of how you create these lenses, and of course, it’s going to vary from individual to individual, but the idea with glasses is we want to make it so that, although the lens that’s inside our eye might not be doing a great job at focusing the light onto the retina in the right way, we can compensate for that by adding an artificial lens and then that can help us out in that process.

That’s really it for this video. It gives us an overview of how vision works and how the eyes work. In a future episode, as I mentioned, we’re going to go in to much more detail, some of the nitty-gritty about how this works even on a molecular level, some of the proteins that are involved and how this really causes a signal in the optic nerve to go to the brain, and what happens specifically in the brain. That’s it for this video, and I’ll see you in the next one.

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Leslie Samuel is the creator of Interactive Biology. His mission is to use this site to Make Biology fun for people all over the world.

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Leave An AWESOME Comment

97 Responses to “030 How Eyes Work – An Introduction”

  1. Freelance MD February 4, 2011 at 2:26 pm #

    What an excellent site and clear explanations. Hope you can keep up the content production. One a day is a pretty lofty goal.

    • Leslie February 4, 2011 at 2:45 pm #

      Thank you very much. Yep, it is a pretty lofty goal. So far, I’ve missed one ;)

      It’s my goal, at least for now. I want to grow it to have lots of valuable content to help as many people as possible. So cross your fingers, and check back often :)

  2. Sarah February 10, 2011 at 7:41 pm #

    Thank you so much for making these videos. We all appreciate it!

    • Leslie February 10, 2011 at 10:01 pm #

      You are very much welcome Sarah. Glad to be able to share it with you guys!

  3. jimmyt1222 February 16, 2011 at 9:49 pm #

    When you say “pigment”, do you mean “photoreceptor”? @6:10

  4. jimmyt1222 February 17, 2011 at 2:49 am #

    When you say “pigment”, do you mean “photoreceptor”? @6:10

  5. InteractiveBiology February 17, 2011 at 8:18 am #

    @jimmyt1222 That is correct. I should have said photoreceptors there. In the Fovea is where you have the most cones. However, the pigments are in the photoreceptors, so you will also have more pigment indirectly. Thanks for asking.

  6. InteractiveBiology February 17, 2011 at 8:18 am #

    That is correct. I should have said photoreceptors there. In the Fovea is where you have the most cones. However, the pigments are in the photoreceptors, so you will also have more pigment indirectly. Thanks for asking.

  7. InteractiveBiology February 17, 2011 at 1:18 pm #

    That is correct. I should have said photoreceptors there. In the Fovea is where you have the most cones. However, the pigments are in the photoreceptors, so you will also have more pigment indirectly. Thanks for asking.

  8. jimmyt1222 February 17, 2011 at 4:51 pm #

    Thanks very much. love the videos. Please keep them coming. You seem to be following my behavioral neuroscience textbook perfectly. These videos are a perfect compliment to reading the book and going to lecture. Thanks again.

  9. InteractiveBiology February 17, 2011 at 4:53 pm #

    @jimmyt1222 I’m glad you are loving the videos, and good to know they go along with your textbook well. I will definitely keep em coming. Just make sure you keep coming back to check them out ;)

  10. InteractiveBiology February 17, 2011 at 4:53 pm #

    I’m glad you are loving the videos, and good to know they go along with your textbook well. I will definitely keep em coming. Just make sure you keep coming back to check them out ;)

  11. jimmyt1222 February 17, 2011 at 9:51 pm #

    Thanks very much. love the videos. Please keep them coming. You seem to be following my behavioral neuroscience textbook perfectly. These videos are a perfect compliment to reading the book and going to lecture. Thanks again.

  12. InteractiveBiology February 17, 2011 at 9:53 pm #

    I’m glad you are loving the videos, and good to know they go along with your textbook well. I will definitely keep em coming. Just make sure you keep coming back to check them out ;)

  13. Mohammed February 19, 2011 at 6:26 pm #

    Thank you so much .. great video =)

  14. gilpin March 2, 2011 at 12:44 pm #

    how do eyes work

    • Leslie March 2, 2011 at 4:04 pm #

      Umm . . . Did you watch the video?

  15. rainbowmilktea April 2, 2011 at 5:16 am #

    Hi thanks for your videos, they’re really helpful (:
    would you be able to do up a video to show the embryological development of the eyes, in particular the lens?
    cheers!

  16. rainbowmilktea April 2, 2011 at 9:16 am #

    Hi thanks for your videos, they’re really helpful (:
    would you be able to do up a video to show the embryological development of the eyes, in particular the lens?
    cheers!

  17. InteractiveBiology April 2, 2011 at 8:12 pm #

    @rainbowmilktea Glad you are finding the videos helpful. I’m going according to a sequence, so I’m not sure when I’d be dealing with that. I know that it won’t be soon, because I’m working on getting through all of my physiology content. Not sure when I’ll get to development, but it will come at some point in the future. Thank you so much for your input though. Hope you continue to find value in the many more videos that are coming :)

  18. InteractiveBiology April 2, 2011 at 8:12 pm #

    Glad you are finding the videos helpful. I’m going according to a sequence, so I’m not sure when I’d be dealing with that. I know that it won’t be soon, because I’m working on getting through all of my physiology content. Not sure when I’ll get to development, but it will come at some point in the future. Thank you so much for your input though. Hope you continue to find value in the many more videos that are coming :)

  19. InteractiveBiology April 3, 2011 at 12:12 am #

    Glad you are finding the videos helpful. I’m going according to a sequence, so I’m not sure when I’d be dealing with that. I know that it won’t be soon, because I’m working on getting through all of my physiology content. Not sure when I’ll get to development, but it will come at some point in the future. Thank you so much for your input though. Hope you continue to find value in the many more videos that are coming :)

  20. JC May 4, 2011 at 3:01 pm #

    Thank you SO MUCH this has REALLY helped with my revision! :D

    • Lrsamuel May 4, 2011 at 6:00 pm #

      You are very much welcome JC. Glad you are finding value in it :)

  21. Vili May 4, 2011 at 5:50 pm #

    Excellent site, Samuel!

    The videos are excellent. I believe that the future of teaching is in the use of videos and web-based tools. Salman Khan says in one of his TED Talks that we can ‘…use videos to re-invent education’. I think your website and videos are really helping us achieve that.

    • Lrsamuel May 4, 2011 at 5:59 pm #

      Thanks Vili,

      Glad you like the videos. Yep, I watched Salman Khan’s talk. He is part of my inspiration for doing what I’m doing here :)

      • Vili May 4, 2011 at 6:05 pm #

        You are super, Samuel!

        A few minutes ago, you were taking a jog – along a busy street in Columbia!

        • Lrsamuel May 30, 2011 at 9:35 am #

          That’s the beauty of technology :D

  22. Steve May 30, 2011 at 9:31 am #

    This is a great site , day before my neuro psychology exam and its clarifying my whole course.

    • Lrsamuel May 30, 2011 at 9:34 am #

      That’s great Steve, Glad to know it’s helping you so much. All the best on your exam. Let me know how it goes :)

  23. Ray June 24, 2011 at 9:16 pm #

    Great website, great vids. I’ve learned more about perception in the last hour watching than in the 7 weeks my course took. Pretty important exam in a week, this helps me a lot.

    Thank you so much and keep up the good work!

    Ray

    • Lrsamuel June 24, 2011 at 9:31 pm #

      Wow Ray, that’s awesome. Well, not awesome that you didn’t learn as much in your 7 week course, but awesome that you learned so much from the videos :)

      All the best on your exam. Let me know how it goes!

  24. BigBend2012 October 26, 2011 at 8:21 pm #

    have upcoming exam and i only wanted to check out one thing, and came across this second video. DEFINITELY IS OF MUCH HELP!

  25. BigBend2012 October 27, 2011 at 12:21 am #

    have upcoming exam and i only wanted to check out one thing, and came across this second video. DEFINITELY IS OF MUCH HELP!

  26. nickycole761 October 31, 2011 at 10:28 pm #

    MUSTARD LIBIDO!

  27. nickycole761 November 1, 2011 at 2:28 am #

    MUSTARD LIBIDO!

  28. afrprincess07 December 8, 2011 at 1:24 pm #

    hey that beautiful lady is me !!

  29. afrprincess07 December 8, 2011 at 1:35 pm #

    question? im still confused on how the lens bends the light to focus on the retina? why is it that when the muscles expand the lens, the light is able to be focused on the retina as opposed to when the muscles constrict and therefore buldges the lens? im not sure if my question makes sense??

  30. InteractiveBiology December 8, 2011 at 4:27 pm #

    @afrprincess07 Unfortunately, Leslie is too busy at the moment. He won’t be able to answer all of your inquiries. He has many to work on at the moment. So stay tuned for more Biology videos coming soon!

  31. InteractiveBiology December 8, 2011 at 4:27 pm #

    Unfortunately, Leslie is too busy at the moment. He won’t be able to answer all of your inquiries. He has many to work on at the moment. So stay tuned for more Biology videos coming soon!

  32. afrprincess07 December 8, 2011 at 6:24 pm #

    hey that beautiful lady is me !!

  33. afrprincess07 December 8, 2011 at 6:35 pm #

    question? im still confused on how the lens bends the light to focus on the retina? why is it that when the muscles expand the lens, the light is able to be focused on the retina as opposed to when the muscles constrict and therefore buldges the lens? im not sure if my question makes sense??

  34. InteractiveBiology December 8, 2011 at 9:27 pm #

    Unfortunately, Leslie is too busy at the moment. He won’t be able to answer all of your inquiries. He has many to work on at the moment. So stay tuned for more Biology videos coming soon!

  35. hcube3000 December 20, 2011 at 3:37 pm #

    @afrprincess07 the lens causes the change of direction of light (refraction). So if the lens is quite thin, the light doesnt pass through much of the lens and so it would not get refracted as much. This is usually the case if you are looking at things which are far from you. However if you need to focus on, say a book, you effectively need to see “bigger” items (i.e. a diagram on a book as opposed to a cloud in the skywhich appears smaller). So to accomodate for this closer image, the lens …

  36. hcube3000 December 20, 2011 at 3:37 pm #

    the lens causes the change of direction of light (refraction). So if the lens is quite thin, the light doesnt pass through much of the lens and so it would not get refracted as much. This is usually the case if you are looking at things which are far from you. However if you need to focus on, say a book, you effectively need to see “bigger” items (i.e. a diagram on a book as opposed to a cloud in the skywhich appears smaller). So to accomodate for this closer image, the lens …

  37. hcube3000 December 20, 2011 at 3:39 pm #

    @afrprincess07 … would bulge to make the light refract more. This way, you can distinguish things in greater detail that are closer to you :-)

  38. hcube3000 December 20, 2011 at 3:39 pm #

    … would bulge to make the light refract more. This way, you can distinguish things in greater detail that are closer to you :-)

  39. afrprincess07 December 20, 2011 at 4:13 pm #

    @hcube3000 thanku:)

  40. afrprincess07 December 20, 2011 at 4:13 pm #

    thanku:)

  41. hcube3000 December 20, 2011 at 8:37 pm #

    the lens causes the change of direction of light (refraction). So if the lens is quite thin, the light doesnt pass through much of the lens and so it would not get refracted as much. This is usually the case if you are looking at things which are far from you. However if you need to focus on, say a book, you effectively need to see “bigger” items (i.e. a diagram on a book as opposed to a cloud in the skywhich appears smaller). So to accomodate for this closer image, the lens …

  42. hcube3000 December 20, 2011 at 8:39 pm #

    … would bulge to make the light refract more. This way, you can distinguish things in greater detail that are closer to you :-)

  43. afrprincess07 December 20, 2011 at 9:13 pm #

    thanku:)

  44. MissMoore01011 January 27, 2012 at 3:32 pm #

    This is great! i love it!!!!

  45. MissMoore01011 January 27, 2012 at 8:32 pm #

    This is great! i love it!!!!

  46. xxTaKe2xx January 29, 2012 at 5:23 pm #

    06:32 as straight as drawn with a ruler

  47. xxTaKe2xx January 29, 2012 at 10:23 pm #

    06:32 as straight as drawn with a ruler

  48. Jason April 18, 2012 at 2:20 pm #

    What about if there is an issue with the optic nerve or if an individual is drunk. We all hear about the beer goggles etc?

  49. drdesha1 April 22, 2012 at 5:39 pm #

    thx

  50. drdesha1 April 22, 2012 at 9:39 pm #

    thx

  51. MyLOLrandom May 13, 2012 at 1:36 pm #

    EYE TEST. Find the small letter i.. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIiIIIIIIII­­IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII …………………………­­…. Find the letter M. this is hard. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNMNNNNNN­­NNNNNNNN. Find what is wr0ng. ABCDEFGHIJKLNMOPQRSTUVWXYZ. after the c0untdown make a wish. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. now wish. if u dont paste this in to 5 pages ur wish will be opposite.. this is true

  52. MyLOLrandom May 13, 2012 at 1:36 pm #

    EYE TEST. Find the small letter i.. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIiIIIIIIII­­IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII …………………………­­…. Find the letter M. this is hard. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNMNNNNNN­­NNNNNNNN. Find what is wr0ng. ABCDEFGHIJKLNMOPQRSTUVWXYZ. after the c0untdown make a wish. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. now wish. if u dont paste this in to 5 pages ur wish will be opposite.. this is true

  53. MyLOLrandom May 13, 2012 at 1:36 pm #

    EYE TEST. Find the small letter i.. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIiIIIIIIII­­IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII …………………………­­…. Find the letter M. this is hard. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNMNNNNNN­­NNNNNNNN. Find what is wr0ng. ABCDEFGHIJKLNMOPQRSTUVWXYZ. after the c0untdown make a wish. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. now wish. if u dont paste this in to 5 pages ur wish will be opposite.. this is true

  54. 199100shady June 2, 2012 at 2:39 pm #

    i like it but you move veeeeeeeery sloooooowly. you need to speak quicker to keep our interest

  55. 199100shady June 2, 2012 at 2:39 pm #

    i like it but you move veeeeeeeery sloooooowly. you need to speak quicker to keep our interest

  56. mumetmikirinrakyat June 8, 2012 at 7:09 am #

    senang bisa menemukan video ini.
    sangat memabntu.
    sukses untuk kalian!!
    n_n

  57. mumetmikirinrakyat June 8, 2012 at 7:09 am #

    senang bisa menemukan video ini.
    sangat memabntu.
    sukses untuk kalian!!
    n_n

  58. MissNatski June 8, 2012 at 8:11 am #

    Cones and Rods are not “pigments”. They are photoreceptor cells.

  59. MissNatski June 8, 2012 at 8:11 am #

    Cones and Rods are not “pigments”. They are photoreceptor cells.

  60. Rockinperiwinkle June 10, 2012 at 3:52 pm #

    It’s really focusing the light to shoot it at the fovea, where more cones are located. These recognize color and light during the day best. It’s kind of like that picture where a white line comes into a triangle and bends out in a rainbow. Different colors are different wavelengths and frequencies of light, so they bend differently. Somehow the lens is shaped just so that it bends all of the light entering the pupil into the concentrated area of the retina: the fovea. hope this helps!

  61. Rockinperiwinkle June 10, 2012 at 3:52 pm #

    It’s really focusing the light to shoot it at the fovea, where more cones are located. These recognize color and light during the day best. It’s kind of like that picture where a white line comes into a triangle and bends out in a rainbow. Different colors are different wavelengths and frequencies of light, so they bend differently. Somehow the lens is shaped just so that it bends all of the light entering the pupil into the concentrated area of the retina: the fovea. hope this helps!

  62. Athivenable June 18, 2012 at 9:12 pm #

    Human iris does not have blue nor green pigments.. ;)

  63. Athivenable June 18, 2012 at 9:12 pm #

    Human iris does not have blue nor green pigments.. ;)

  64. tc July 15, 2012 at 8:10 pm #

    Your videos are extremely informative (clear and succinct), although I find your preoccupation with attractive young ladies a little bit monotonous. Are you related to Tiger Woods?

  65. mustanglp50 July 20, 2012 at 2:57 am #

    who is the hot girl ? :)

  66. mustanglp50 July 20, 2012 at 2:57 am #

    who is the hot girl ? :)

  67. djcfast1 October 13, 2012 at 4:36 pm #

    Hi From the UK thanks for these videos, Im doing a chemistry degree with the OU but am doing a short biology course as part of it. I was struggling with some of the Neuron stuff and don’t like reading, I’m more of a visual learner so your videos have really helped, thanks again

    Dave

  68. Carrie Lim October 26, 2012 at 4:33 pm #

    The lens of our eye is concave, because of it shape it bends the light to focus on the fovea. When the light cant reach to the fovea, the cilliary muscles that is attached to the lens will pull the lens to make in thinner, causing the light to fall on the fovea. However, if the light pass over the fovea, the cilliary muscles will relax and the lens will become thicker, causing the light to fall onto the right place.=D
    I hope this helps to answer ur question!

  69. DJPoloMan22 November 2, 2012 at 4:51 am #

    The use of that picture kept my interest. Solid video!

  70. crystalkelly263 December 11, 2012 at 4:28 am #

    No way, I’m studying for the final for that course! Yay :)

  71. mistertube7 December 21, 2012 at 8:44 am #

    if you still didnt find out just look up concave and convex lenses. They are different shapes and bend light differently. When the lens inside the eye is as flat and stretched as it can be. it doesn’t really bend the light. Your window would be like that. light goes through and is not effected. When the lens is more round it starts effecting the light. (much like glasses, magnifying glasses.

  72. thenerdyminecrafter January 7, 2013 at 3:52 am #

    Want a nice trick to see in the dark for a couple of seconds no matter how dark it is?
    1) Close your eyes
    2) Take a deep breath, whilst taking this deep breath imagine sucking in all the darkness in between your eyebrows.
    3) Release the air, whilst releasing the air imagine blowing out light into whatever room you’re in.
    4) Open your eyes.
    If you did it right the you should be able to see clearly for a couple of seconds.
    I don’t know how it works but it does.

  73. Ghadeer Tarek January 9, 2013 at 11:12 am #

    thnx really for your amazing videos plaz make a video about skeleton

  74. Ghadeer Tarek January 9, 2013 at 11:12 am #

    and skin lesson

  75. joey thibodeaux February 6, 2013 at 10:42 am #

    Very well presented sir. Thank you for sharing your knowledge.

  76. alexmobbin February 12, 2013 at 4:59 pm #

    This is so incredibly helpful. Thank you so much.

  77. Md. Seyam reza akash February 16, 2013 at 1:17 pm #

    THANKS FOR HELPING

  78. Aldrin Sichombe February 28, 2013 at 10:12 am #

    whre a u frm leslie

    u da best

  79. Greg Anthony March 30, 2013 at 7:34 pm #

    I am grateful for the film. Youtube is great for this form of info.My best friend had been bullied. He explained he was going to grow muscles. I didn’t believe him. Until within weeks he gained 40 pounds of pure muscle mass. He made use of the Muscle Building Bible – look for it in Google. No one dares to bully him nowadays. I personally registered earlier this week. And the mans emails are fucking fascinating…

  80. Jay Cuellar May 4, 2013 at 11:11 pm #

    I’m an optician studying for my ABO certification exam and in the anatomy of the eye, you really opened my eyes on why my lenses are needed. Thank you very much, I found your illustration and explanation extremely helpful.

  81. PrimaryNarcissist May 11, 2013 at 5:52 am #

    A few corrections: The lens is convex not concave, i.e. it is shaped a bit like an oval. The ciliary muscle is like a circular band around the lens and is attached to the lens by fibres called zonular fibres. When the ciliary muscle contracts, these fibres loosen. Think about it like a tube of muscle with a hole in the middle – contraction causes the hole to get smaller. When the Zonular fibres loosen the lens becomes more spherical. This is what happens when we see things up close.

  82. berrycurious May 16, 2013 at 11:37 pm #

    I WANNA C THAT ATTRACTIVE YOUNG LADY YAYY

  83. GURSHARAN DHANOA June 2, 2013 at 9:39 am #

    i am here after side effects from lasik laser surgery :(

  84. JohnnyCap126 June 4, 2013 at 11:14 pm #

    #ConManSwag

  85. kasperdon June 11, 2013 at 12:22 pm #

    this helps for my psych class

  86. MyEyesVideos October 19, 2013 at 6:32 am #

    Take charge of your eye health and learn about common symptoms, causes, and possible treatment for eye-related problems such as cataracts, glaucoma, and symptoms of dry eye.

  87. farzi ghajni October 28, 2013 at 3:51 pm #

    Crazy clip. Good movie.

    My good friend was once a fatty. He transformed himself from 283lbs of fat to 211 lbs of complete muscle. We thought it was stunning! I just joined myself as I have to boost my body. He used the Muscle Building Bible (Search on Google)…

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  1. Tweets that mention How Eyes Work – An Introduction – Episode 30 | Interactive Biology, by Leslie Samuel -- Topsy.com - February 6, 2011

    [...] This post was mentioned on Twitter by steve harton, Leslie Samuel. Leslie Samuel said: New: How Eyes Work – An Introduction – Episode 30 – In this video, Leslie explains all about how we are able to see … http://ow.ly/1bbzVH [...]