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017 Two Types of Receptors

After neurotransmitters are released from the cell, they bind to receptors on the next cell.

In this video, Leslie explains how the two different types of receptors – the ionotropic and metabotropic receptors – work to bring about various responses in the cell.

Enjoy!

 

Transcript of Today’s Episode

Hello and welcome to Interactive Biology TV, where we’re making biology fun! My name is Leslie Samuel. In this episode, Episode 17, I’m going to be talking about 2 types of receptors. We’ve been talking about the nervous system, we’ve been looking at neurons, and we’ve seen how the action potential starts at the axon hillock, the signal travels all the way down the axon, down to the axon terminals. In Episode 16, we looked at how the neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminals, and they bind to receptors on the next cell.

What we’re going to be doing is looking at those receptors because there are 2 basic types of receptors:
1. Ionotropic
2. Metabotropic

What we’re going to do is we’re going to look at the ionotropic receptors first. With ionotropic, these are very fast-acting receptors. What I’m going to do is I’m going to attempt to draw one now. Let’s say here we have a receptor, and this is a cell membrane. We have the signal that comes along the axon of the preceding cell, and it releases neurotransmitters. I’m going to say these little dots here are neurotransmitters, and they’re in the synaptic cleft.

What’s going to happen if it’s an ionotropic receptor, the neurotransmitter is going to come and it’s going to bind to the receptor. The way these receptors are set up is relatively simple. When the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor, that causes the channel to open. So, I’m going to draw this showing that now there’s an open space. And then, if there are ions that are outside the cell that are specific to that channel, those ions can then enter the cell. So it’s very fast-acting. The neurotransmitter binds to the receptor, and then the channel opens so that the ions can travel inside the cell. Once again, these are ionotropic receptors.

Now, of course, there are going to be different types of neurotransmitters and different types of receptors that are going to act in this way. I’m going to take the example of acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. So we’re going to start with ACh, and that’s for acetylcholine. We’re going to call these neurotransmitters acetylcholine, and the receptor that’s the ionotropic receptor for acetylcholine is called the nicotinic receptor. The reason it’s called nicotinic is because this is the receptor that nicotine acts on, and we’re going to talk about that in a later episode.

So, acetylcholine comes, and actually 2 acetylcholines bind to the nicotinic receptor, and then that causes sodium ions to rush in. And now you know that sodium ions are going to have a positive charge, so what do you think that’s going to do to the membrane of the cell? Well, of course, that’s going to make it more positive. So I’m going to look at it here. Let’s say I’m looking at voltage or membrane potential on the Y-axis, and I’m going to have time on the X-axis. This is the resting membrane potential.

When something like this happens that causes sodium to come in, that can cause the membrane potential to get this little bump here. So it increases a little from that sodium rushing into the cell. Because this is becoming more positive, we’re going to call this an excitatory (it’s getting it excited) post-synaptic potential. EPSP, excitatory post-synaptic potential. Because it’s acetylcholine binding to the nicotinic receptor, that’s going to cause sodium ions to rush in, causing an excitatory post-synaptic potential.

Now, there’s another type of neurotransmitter, 2 examples would be GABA and glycine (forgive my writing there, but I think you get it.) When these bind, let’s say this is GABA or glycine, what that is going to do is it’s not going to cause not sodium ions, but chloride ions, and let’s say this is chloride, Cl-, to rush into the cell.

If a negative ion rushes into the cell, what is that going to do? Well, you probably guessed it. Instead of causing an excitatory post-synaptic potential, that’s going to cause an inhibitory post-synaptic potential, or an IPSP. So if it’s a positive ion rushing in, you get an EPSP. If it’s a negative ion rushing in, you’re going to get an IPSP. This is a really fast-acting process: neurotransmitter binds, channel opens, ion rushes in.

Let’s go to the next type of receptor, and that’s called the metabotropic receptor. This is going to be a little more complicated, because what we have here, just like before, we have a receptor in the membrane. And just like before, we have neurotransmitters that are outside the cell. But what’s different here, is that inside the cell, associated with this receptor, we have a G protein.

What happens is this neurotransmitter comes and it binds to the cell, just like before, and instead of opening a channel, what that does is it activates the G protein. And then this G protein then goes on to activate a second messenger system where there can be multiple processes that are happening, causing a certain response on the inside of the cell.

So this is a slower process in that there are multiple processes happening, and it causes a different type of response. That response can be a number of different things, and we’re going to talk about that a little later.

An example of a metabotropic receptor would be the muscarinic receptor. With the muscarinic receptor, acetylcholine is still the neurotransmitter, so ACh, and that binds to the receptor that activates a G protein. When it activates a G protein, a number of processes happen that cause multiple responses, depending on the type of muscarinic receptor we’re dealing with. One of the features that we have here is for every neurotransmitter that binds, that can activate a G protein, and whatever process this is can happen multiple times, and then this process this is can happen multiple times, so that we get a greater response on the inside.

For example, I’m just going to take a random number. Let’s say here we activate 1 G protein, and this process can happen 10 times, and each one of those can cause this next process to happen 10 times. So this second messenger system can result in a significant amount of amplification, so that we can get a significantly greater response.

Those are the 2 types of receptors: we have the nicotinic receptor and we have the muscarinic receptor. If you have any questions about this, you can leave them in the comment section below, or you can just leave a comment letting me know what you think about the format of what I’m doing, and even give suggestions for future episodes. That’s it for this video, and I’ll see you on the next one.

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Leslie Samuel is the creator of Interactive Biology. His mission is to use this site to Make Biology fun for people all over the world.

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Leave An AWESOME Comment

161 Responses to “017 Two Types of Receptors”

  1. daniel February 2, 2011 at 8:24 pm #

    what is the difference between intracellular and plasma membrane receptor? what is their function please.

    thank you. your videos are very helpful.

  2. kavvyr February 18, 2011 at 6:58 pm #

    dude u r soooooo awesome. u go thru everything i am going thru in my class
    currently! i “like” or “thumbs ups” all ur vids i watch :D

  3. varsha April 17, 2011 at 8:53 am #

    i had a doubt.let it be an EPSP or an IPSP, when they cause the membrane potential to be positive or negative respectively,then how does the membrane potential to get to normal again as in the graph you have drawn in the video??? could you please give an explanation for this?

  4. Mariam April 17, 2011 at 6:16 pm #

    I came across your videos today and I have learned more in the last 17 episodes than I have in two of my Neuroscience classes! Thank you so much for your awesome explanations!

    • Leslie April 17, 2011 at 7:32 pm #

      That’s awesome Mariam. So glad it was able to help you so much. That gives me the motivation to make even more :)

      All the best!

  5. marilyn pechbrenner April 17, 2011 at 7:53 pm #

    I have been blessed coming across your video’s. They have helped me tremendously!! i wish you could make more. i would love one on the cranial nerves (if you know an easy way of learning the 12 pairs) with your physiology it would be nice if you could add a pain receptors and the importance of pain in the nervous system

    • Leslie April 17, 2011 at 8:02 pm #

      Thanks Marilyn.

      I appreciate your feedback and I’m so glad that they are helping you so much. I do plan on making more, but all in due time. It will take some time, but the goal is to make the biggest library of good quality Biology Videos online. Quite a daunting task, but I think I’m up to it :)

      • Marilyn Terepocki May 9, 2011 at 12:43 pm #

        God Bless you in your endevors

        • Lrsamuel May 9, 2011 at 1:28 pm #

          Thank you, and same to you Marilyn :)

  6. Natalie May 1, 2011 at 4:42 am #

    You’re awesome man!!! Keep up the great work, we need you!! :D I’m learning tons because of this and it truly is fun to learn!!! Thank you Leslie Samuel!! :)

    • Lrsamuel May 1, 2011 at 8:21 am #

      Thank you so much Natalie. Comments like these make me want to hit it hard and come out with a million new videos, lol. I’m glad they are helping you so much. You are VERY MUCH welcome!

  7. Dave Moyer May 1, 2011 at 3:20 pm #

    Sir,
    Thanks for the clarity and simplicity of your presentations. Can you apply the same kind of analysis to the following?
    1. How do GABA interneurons cause inhibition of nearby neurotransmitters?
    2. How do hypofunctioning NMDA recepors (blocked by kynurenic acid or diminished by oxidative stress)cause a dopamine storm?
    3. What causes GABA interneuron hyperpolarization. What is the effect of it?
    4. What role do GABA interneurons play in the filtering and prioritization of impulses sent to the prefrontal cortex.

    I come from a non technical background and have been struggling with these issues for some time. Thanks for any assistance you can provide.

    • Lrsamuel May 1, 2011 at 3:23 pm #

      Those are all great questions. However, I’ve finished dealing with the nervous system for now, because I need to get on to covering other topics. Unfortunately, I won’t be able to do that at this moment. I hope that you can find as much value in the other videos and the ones that I will start working on next week.

      All the best!

  8. Katy Braddick May 30, 2011 at 5:34 pm #

    I’m doing a degree in Biomedical Science and I have found your videos so
    helpful! They are so much easier to understand than anything I have been
    able to find on the internet or in text books! Thanks so much and I hope
    the videos carry on!! :-)

  9. InteractiveBiology May 30, 2011 at 5:38 pm #

    @stephypaul571 That’s great to hear. Hope your exam went well :)

  10. Lori June 23, 2011 at 11:02 pm #

    Oh my goodness….I have listened to our instructor for 2 days discuss this and I couldn’t get it. I watched your video one time and it totally makes sense. Thank you so much!

    • Lrsamuel June 23, 2011 at 11:27 pm #

      That’s awesome Lori. Glad to know the video helped you that much. All the best with your class.

  11. sakiwieug August 16, 2011 at 11:30 pm #

    WOW!!! I’m blown away by your awesome video…has helped me so much with my studies. Thanks for your time in putting this together so that you can help others :)

  12. InteractiveBiology August 17, 2011 at 5:53 am #

    @sakiwieug That’s great to know. Thanks for the comment. Stay tuned for MANY more!

  13. DoonGirl18 August 23, 2011 at 6:58 am #

    Thank you so much!! I’m studying Neuroscience but I’ve never done biology before so I was finding it really hard but your videos are amazing help…especially for a visual learner like myself!! Thanks to your video i finally understand what my crazy physiology lecturer was talking about! Thanks :)

  14. InteractiveBiology August 23, 2011 at 7:05 am #

    @DoonGirl18 You are very much welcome. Glad to know the videos are helping
    you to understand your crazy lecturer, lol. I plan on doing many more, so
    stay tuned. All the best!

  15. InteractiveBiology August 23, 2011 at 7:05 am #

    @DoonGirl18 You are very much welcome. Glad to know the videos are helping you to understand your crazy lecturer, lol. I plan on doing many more, so stay tuned.

    All the best!

  16. iam4someone September 8, 2011 at 11:49 am #

    it’s very helpful

  17. iam4someone September 8, 2011 at 11:49 am #

    it’s very helpful

  18. InteractiveBiology September 8, 2011 at 12:12 pm #

    @iam4someone Glad to hear. Stay tuned for more

  19. sarva khitana Bunbulama September 9, 2011 at 9:25 am #

    thank you very much.

  20. Djalitana September 9, 2011 at 9:25 am #

    thank you very much.

  21. Djalitana September 9, 2011 at 6:42 pm #

    hi, I have different information now. at synaptic Clift lots of calcium Ions ca2+ enter the membrane or lots of sodium Na+ ? thank you for your dedication.

  22. Djalitana September 9, 2011 at 6:42 pm #

    hi, I have different information now. at synaptic Clift lots of calcium Ions ca2+ enter the membrane or lots of sodium Na+ ? thank you for your dedication.

  23. Djalitana September 9, 2011 at 7:50 pm #

    ok I went back to my book and watch this clip again. now I know it doesn’t need to be necessarily sodium Ions , it can be any other ion to get into the cell and depolarise or hyperpolarize the post synaptic neurone or muscle. thank you so much.

  24. InteractiveBiology September 10, 2011 at 8:11 pm #

    @Djalitana You are very much welcome. Glad you were able to figure it out!

  25. InteractiveBiology September 10, 2011 at 8:11 pm #

    You are very much welcome. Glad you were able to figure it out!

  26. UnagiTap September 16, 2011 at 4:46 pm #

    @Djalitana Ca2+ is for the release of neurotransmitters from the vesicles in the PRE-synpase. The action potential opens Ca2+ channels. Calcium binds to vesicles and release. So then it now depends on which neurotransmitter and what type of POST-synaptic receptor it is like described above.

  27. UnagiTap September 16, 2011 at 4:46 pm #

    @Djalitana Ca2+ is for the release of neurotransmitters from the vesicles in the PRE-synpase. The action potential opens Ca2+ channels. Calcium binds to vesicles and release. So then it now depends on which neurotransmitter and what type of POST-synaptic receptor it is like described above.

  28. UnagiTap September 16, 2011 at 4:46 pm #

    Ca2+ is for the release of neurotransmitters from the vesicles in the PRE-synpase. The action potential opens Ca2+ channels. Calcium binds to vesicles and release. So then it now depends on which neurotransmitter and what type of POST-synaptic receptor it is like described above.

  29. UnagiTap September 16, 2011 at 4:46 pm #

    Ca2+ is for the release of neurotransmitters from the vesicles in the PRE-synpase. The action potential opens Ca2+ channels. Calcium binds to vesicles and release. So then it now depends on which neurotransmitter and what type of POST-synaptic receptor it is like described above.

  30. deltadamaes September 22, 2011 at 2:20 am #

    Currently on Paramedic course – This really helped – Thank you so much!

  31. deltadamaes September 22, 2011 at 6:20 am #

    Currently on Paramedic course – This really helped – Thank you so much!

  32. ingeborgc October 6, 2011 at 1:02 pm #

    Wow! This is great! You are a life saver for my neurons! :D Keep up the good work ! Greetings from Croatia.

  33. InteractiveBiology October 6, 2011 at 1:03 pm #

    @ingeborgc Wow, Croatia. That’s awesome. So glad to be able to help from such a distance away :)

    All the best!

  34. InteractiveBiology October 6, 2011 at 1:03 pm #

    Wow, Croatia. That’s awesome. So glad to be able to help from such a distance away :)

    All the best!

  35. ingeborgc October 6, 2011 at 5:02 pm #

    Wow! This is great! You are a life saver for my neurons! :D Keep up the good work ! Greetings from Croatia.

  36. InteractiveBiology October 6, 2011 at 5:03 pm #

    Wow, Croatia. That’s awesome. So glad to be able to help from such a distance away :)

    All the best!

  37. louloubaby100 October 12, 2011 at 10:58 pm #

    Thank you so much this video was so helpful for me! You make it so easy to understand!

  38. louloubaby100 October 13, 2011 at 2:58 am #

    Thank you so much this video was so helpful for me! You make it so easy to understand!

  39. iam4someone October 13, 2011 at 11:15 pm #

    @InteractiveBiology i’ll

  40. iam4someone October 13, 2011 at 11:15 pm #

    i’ll

  41. iam4someone October 14, 2011 at 3:15 am #

    i’ll

  42. InteractiveBiology October 14, 2011 at 8:45 am #

    @louloubaby100 Glad to be of service :)

  43. InteractiveBiology October 14, 2011 at 8:45 am #

    Glad to be of service :)

  44. InteractiveBiology October 14, 2011 at 12:45 pm #

    Glad to be of service :)

  45. vegan4ever November 5, 2011 at 3:37 pm #

    @Djalitana in the PREsynaptic cell its calcium… POST its sodium

  46. vegan4ever November 5, 2011 at 3:37 pm #

    in the PREsynaptic cell its calcium… POST its sodium

  47. vegan4ever November 5, 2011 at 7:37 pm #

    in the PREsynaptic cell its calcium… POST its sodium

  48. ONWUDIACHI24 November 18, 2011 at 3:10 pm #

    i really like the way you break everything down give examples and draw pictures very very helpful.

  49. InteractiveBiology November 18, 2011 at 3:47 pm #

    @ONWUDIACHI24 You’re welcome :) Do stay tuned for more!

  50. InteractiveBiology November 18, 2011 at 3:47 pm #

    You’re welcome :) Do stay tuned for more!

  51. ONWUDIACHI24 November 18, 2011 at 8:10 pm #

    i really like the way you break everything down give examples and draw pictures very very helpful.

  52. InteractiveBiology November 18, 2011 at 8:47 pm #

    You’re welcome :) Do stay tuned for more!

  53. msss432 November 19, 2011 at 1:09 am #

    Quick question first you say that AcH’s receptor is Nicotinic recetor then… you had the AcH’s receptor as the Muscarinic…… Can any neurotransmitter have any receptor? Or does each have its own receptor?…. Overall your great by the way

  54. msss432 November 19, 2011 at 6:09 am #

    Quick question first you say that AcH’s receptor is Nicotinic recetor then… you had the AcH’s receptor as the Muscarinic…… Can any neurotransmitter have any receptor? Or does each have its own receptor?…. Overall your great by the way

  55. InteractiveBiology November 20, 2011 at 3:15 am #

    @msss432 Oh, I’m sorry. Leslie will not be able to entertain any more questions as he is busy with a lot of stuff right now, and creating more videos for the site. He’ll be tackling more topics so, stay tuned for more!

  56. InteractiveBiology November 20, 2011 at 3:15 am #

    Oh, I’m sorry. Leslie will not be able to entertain any more questions as he is busy with a lot of stuff right now, and creating more videos for the site. He’ll be tackling more topics so, stay tuned for more!

  57. InteractiveBiology November 20, 2011 at 8:15 am #

    Oh, I’m sorry. Leslie will not be able to entertain any more questions as he is busy with a lot of stuff right now, and creating more videos for the site. He’ll be tackling more topics so, stay tuned for more!

  58. NeedsAHardOne November 29, 2011 at 6:42 pm #

    @msss432
    I dont think any neurotransimitter can bind to any recepter, but there is a variety that one can bind to.
    ACh does bind to both nicotinic (which I think has excitatory effects) and muscarinic (which can be either excitatory or inhibitory and only occurs in the parasympathetic system).
    Depending on where the synapse leads to (muscle fiber, neuron, gland, etc) determines which receptors are available for the neurotransmitter.

  59. NeedsAHardOne November 29, 2011 at 6:42 pm #

    I dont think any neurotransimitter can bind to any recepter, but there is a variety that one can bind to.
    ACh does bind to both nicotinic (which I think has excitatory effects) and muscarinic (which can be either excitatory or inhibitory and only occurs in the parasympathetic system).
    Depending on where the synapse leads to (muscle fiber, neuron, gland, etc) determines which receptors are available for the neurotransmitter.

  60. NeedsAHardOne November 29, 2011 at 11:42 pm #

    I dont think any neurotransimitter can bind to any recepter, but there is a variety that one can bind to.
    ACh does bind to both nicotinic (which I think has excitatory effects) and muscarinic (which can be either excitatory or inhibitory and only occurs in the parasympathetic system).
    Depending on where the synapse leads to (muscle fiber, neuron, gland, etc) determines which receptors are available for the neurotransmitter.

  61. Chipotle3333 December 14, 2011 at 8:28 am #

    You are a God send. Thank you so much for your work, this puts everything into perspective in a clear and concise manner.. Right in time for my final too :D Which is in an hour…..

  62. Chipotle3333 December 14, 2011 at 1:28 pm #

    You are a God send. Thank you so much for your work, this puts everything into perspective in a clear and concise manner.. Right in time for my final too :D Which is in an hour…..

  63. InteractiveBiology December 14, 2011 at 6:07 pm #

    @Chipotle3333 We’re so glad to know you find value in it. We hope you aced it. Keep on coming back for more Biology videos! :)

  64. InteractiveBiology December 14, 2011 at 6:07 pm #

    We’re so glad to know you find value in it. We hope you aced it. Keep on coming back for more Biology videos! :)

  65. InteractiveBiology December 14, 2011 at 11:07 pm #

    We’re so glad to know you find value in it. We hope you aced it. Keep on coming back for more Biology videos! :)

  66. litush123 February 19, 2012 at 6:29 am #

    thank you very much!! now it’s understandable :)

  67. litush123 February 19, 2012 at 6:29 am #

    thank you very much!! now it’s understandable :)

  68. litush123 February 19, 2012 at 11:29 am #

    thank you very much!! now it’s understandable :)

  69. 4misspennylane February 27, 2012 at 4:59 pm #

    Honestly, InteractiveBiology is heaven sent. You are like my own personal tutor!
    My professor always makes all of this sound so foriegn, meanwhile you manage to get me to understand a topic in less then 10 min. THANK YOU SO SO SOOO MUCH! <3 Sending you much love from NY! = )

  70. 4misspennylane February 27, 2012 at 9:59 pm #

    Honestly, InteractiveBiology is heaven sent. You are like my own personal tutor!
    My professor always makes all of this sound so foriegn, meanwhile you manage to get me to understand a topic in less then 10 min. THANK YOU SO SO SOOO MUCH! <3 Sending you much love from NY! = )

  71. bibatoo March 1, 2012 at 1:02 pm #

    thank you million times thank you thank you thank you :)

  72. bibatoo March 1, 2012 at 1:02 pm #

    thank you million times thank you thank you thank you :)

  73. bibatoo March 1, 2012 at 6:02 pm #

    thank you million times thank you thank you thank you :)

  74. GoldenPhoenix1981 March 5, 2012 at 1:21 am #

    That was extremely helpful. Thank you.

  75. GoldenPhoenix1981 March 5, 2012 at 6:21 am #

    That was extremely helpful. Thank you.

  76. AUSTrepznt March 20, 2012 at 10:10 pm #

    good vid well explained and set out

  77. AUSTrepznt March 21, 2012 at 2:10 am #

    good vid well explained and set out

  78. Haldouda March 27, 2012 at 11:18 pm #

    You are awesome! I enjoyed the clip, you are clear, to the point, fast and short:) Thank you much. Wish me luck for my test tomorrow:)

  79. Haldouda March 28, 2012 at 3:18 am #

    You are awesome! I enjoyed the clip, you are clear, to the point, fast and short:) Thank you much. Wish me luck for my test tomorrow:)

  80. XoXoRebeccaXoXo April 3, 2012 at 12:57 am #

    This was so helpful thank you so much!!

  81. XoXoRebeccaXoXo April 3, 2012 at 4:57 am #

    This was so helpful thank you so much!!

  82. Rod Hartwick April 6, 2012 at 9:27 am #

    good video

  83. Rod Hartwick April 6, 2012 at 9:27 am #

    good video

  84. Anonymous April 6, 2012 at 1:27 pm #

    good video

  85. Anonymous April 6, 2012 at 1:27 pm #

    good video

  86. Rod Hartwick April 6, 2012 at 1:27 pm #

    good video

  87. pavan May 28, 2012 at 8:52 am #

    Hi Leslie a great website which is helping me get back to the basics, I have a doubt if you plot a graph for G protein linked signal transduction will you get only one peak or multiple peaks ?

  88. Saks June 10, 2012 at 12:31 am #

    Samuel, May God bless you for your efforts. This is unconditional dedication and you are a great teacher. I wish you the best in life!

    • Leslie Samuel June 10, 2012 at 2:00 pm #

      Well thank you Saks. Glad you’re finding value in the videos.

  89. Bodyskillz2011 June 29, 2012 at 1:31 am #

    hi sir thanks for the Vid they are very helpful, i have a question u was talking about Muscariniq receptor so its a metabotropic receptor or not ? and the neurotransmitter bind with the muscariniq receptor and then activate the G proteine ? or just bind with the G prot? x)

  90. Bodyskillz2011 June 29, 2012 at 1:31 am #

    hi sir thanks for the Vid they are very helpful, i have a question u was talking about Muscariniq receptor so its a metabotropic receptor or not ? and the neurotransmitter bind with the muscariniq receptor and then activate the G proteine ? or just bind with the G prot? x)

  91. DestinyHughes July 11, 2012 at 7:56 pm #

    This was so helpful, thank you so much!

  92. DestinyHughes July 11, 2012 at 7:56 pm #

    This was so helpful, thank you so much!

  93. Samantthha September 12, 2012 at 2:07 pm #

    Thank you! After this i finally understand it!

  94. Lauren P September 12, 2012 at 6:38 pm #

    Wow thank you for this!! I’ve spent a week trying to understand this concept, and you managed to clarify it in under 10 minutes! Thanks a million :)

  95. Niki Patel September 15, 2012 at 9:01 pm #

    thank you! this helps illustrate the concept well!

  96. patchappy62 September 20, 2012 at 6:32 pm #

    very good explanation I am now able to visualize the action at the synapse thanks.

  97. Casseybear99 September 20, 2012 at 10:15 pm #

    Excellent interpretation,

  98. sweetpea1Peter3 September 25, 2012 at 10:53 am #

    Thank you!!!! I spent hours of researching online, trying to understand/teach myself this process. You explained it so clearly and simple, I understood it right away.

  99. Anthony Selkowitz September 27, 2012 at 2:21 am #

    Each neurotransmitter has it’s own binding site.

  100. Anthony Selkowitz September 27, 2012 at 2:26 am #

    Unless you were asking about whether each receptor only allows a specific type of neurotransmitter to activate it. For example, most inhibitory ionotropic receptors use GABA. Many Metabotropic receptors accept different types of neurotransmitters. The important part is where the metabotropic receptor is located, not necessarily the types of neurotransmitter it accepts.

  101. Julie Cakir October 18, 2012 at 10:06 pm #

    you are incredible!!!! I defiantly owe a lot to your videos. Thank you so much!! <3

  102. Sarah CirrusBoutique October 23, 2012 at 8:15 pm #

    So helpful! Really clear and at just the right pace. Thank you :)

  103. DjVixn November 20, 2012 at 11:03 pm #

    I love you. Thank you so much.

  104. S1mpleStepz November 26, 2012 at 9:11 pm #

    Leslie Samuel for president 2016.

  105. 1AlleyC December 11, 2012 at 2:48 am #

    Awesome….I am a 1st year med student and you have explain it best……

  106. Lamees Awwad December 30, 2012 at 11:08 pm #

    I’m a 1st year med student and you couldn’t have explained the process more beautifully .. This has been helpful !! Thank you so much!!!

  107. dalodalo90 January 5, 2013 at 5:43 pm #

    come with me to the exam plz :D

  108. Anup Shetty January 14, 2013 at 8:59 am #

    Thanks a lot… You make my pharmacy course 10 times easier… thank you again :)

  109. camandbex January 21, 2013 at 10:40 pm #

    Explained so simply!! A million thank yous!!!

  110. chen582 January 27, 2013 at 1:26 pm #

    it was so helpfull!!
    my language is not English but steel it was so easy to me to understand it!
    so, thank you so much for this!!

  111. Bosele Pebe January 28, 2013 at 3:35 pm #

    You should have explained what happens once G-protein is activated, through to synthesis of cAMP till kinase action.. Thats where its a bit tricky..

  112. Stefanie Gill February 3, 2013 at 4:01 pm #

    Thank you! This was great, as most others will agree! I will definitely be watching the other videos!!

  113. Younness Dehbi February 7, 2013 at 3:46 am #

    Well Sir, I’m a nursing student, and I it took 8 hours to explain what you just explained in 9 min, THANK YOU VERY MUCH

  114. Bickity Banks February 15, 2013 at 3:18 am #

    Thank you very much for posting this series of videos! I am LEARNING a lot from them. You explain everything clearly and concisely. Seriously, my grades are improving because of your videos.

  115. MrBond00793 February 15, 2013 at 4:32 pm #

    Well done

  116. Rupinder Nahal February 25, 2013 at 3:22 am #

    Your videos are always soo helpful. Thank you

  117. Ndunaija March 6, 2013 at 8:32 pm #

    You are my physiology HERO. I feel more confident about the course now that I have you around. You are an amazing instructor.

  118. chocolateddy22 March 9, 2013 at 1:12 pm #

    wow….that makes soooo much more sense now!! thank you!!! (if I pass my exam it’ll be thanks to you!!)

  119. Ferny Cabral March 10, 2013 at 3:04 am #

    Is K+ important in the second messenger system?

  120. Kyle Roberto March 12, 2013 at 12:25 am #

    Great video very simple. Thanks! =)

  121. Jae Young Kim March 16, 2013 at 4:29 am #

    Oh my God Thank you so much Leslie you really wouldn’t understand how much help I got from this 10 min clip… THANK YOU!!

  122. Gabrielle Fillion-Bertrand March 18, 2013 at 9:37 pm #

    Thank you very much for your good explanations. I speak French and your language is easy to understand. It is clear and concise. Keep it up.

  123. megan giannino March 21, 2013 at 10:17 pm #

    This is awesome help I get so easily do fused with biology

  124. Yogesh Subedi March 30, 2013 at 11:02 pm #

    Hey guys. Outstanding movie. My good friend used to be a flabby. He went from 285 lbs of pure fat into 215lbs of massive muscle mass. That shit was crazy! I just subscribed personally as I plan to boost my entire body. He used the Muscle Building Bible (Look in Google)…

  125. hadasdel March 31, 2013 at 2:59 pm #

    what happens after that?
    how does the reuptake works?
    I have an exam on friday and so far your videos are the only thing that helps me :)

  126. girtasbebras111 April 8, 2013 at 4:10 pm #

    easy and simply – wonderful

  127. Josef Shivute April 9, 2013 at 8:11 pm #

    wow this is really awesome…..i watch ur videos to understand topics i dnt understand in my physiology class..thank u very much

  128. TheOn3LeftBehind May 3, 2013 at 7:53 pm #

    Thank you!

  129. hunger4jsutice May 10, 2013 at 5:24 pm #

    Once again, a wonderful, clear, concise explanation that changes learning from wrote memorization to understanding and long term retention. You are one of the reasons I am getting As in Anatomy and Physiology. THANK YOU!!!!

  130. TheJennieration May 12, 2013 at 11:47 am #

    you are easily 10 billion times better than my lecturer!

  131. Jack Rose May 28, 2013 at 2:14 pm #

    Seriously helped me grasp these concepts! You break it all down so easily and clear :)

  132. Hannah Murphy May 31, 2013 at 1:17 am #

    Thank you so much :-) In my exam yesterday i had an essay on the three stages of chemical signaling and your videos helped so much :-)

  133. Kloszewska June 1, 2013 at 9:05 am #

    I am in an advanced brain anatomy class in my Psychology major… I do understand a lot but your videos are GREAT for the visual understanding part of it.
    Thank you so much! :D

  134. SKUNKFUNKMUSIC June 16, 2013 at 8:50 am #

    Great stuff!

  135. noyheimann July 9, 2013 at 1:19 pm #

    do you use wacom stylus or n-trig?
    anyways, thanks a lot – I understand things better now :)

  136. Linda Holder August 7, 2013 at 6:11 pm #

    I wanted to find out if you block a muscarinic receptor what will happen? I am studying neuroleptic medications and trying to understand the way these work. I am not sure you can help, but anything would be appreciated. Thanks

  137. learningabhi August 21, 2013 at 10:41 pm #

    Thanks. You make things easy to understand. Please upload more videos like this.

  138. Vahid Khazaei August 24, 2013 at 3:49 pm #

    Very nice, thanx a lot

  139. kaya770 September 22, 2013 at 9:03 am #

    Thanks! Brilliant.

  140. Carolyn Foster September 29, 2013 at 11:07 am #

    Great videos :D find I’m learning things so much easier and understanding so much better when I can listen to you explain and watch you illustrate each step of a process; a million times better than just reading through pages and pages of text!

  141. Sophia Loaiza October 3, 2013 at 6:21 pm #

    You make it so easy to understand! So thankful for interactive biology tv. It makes me look like a genius

  142. haron11 October 7, 2013 at 2:43 pm #

    is it only acetycholine that acts on muscarine and nicotine receptors or can other transmittors act on them as well?

  143. Kellie Tunney October 9, 2013 at 5:36 pm #

    Thank you so much! Watched a 50 minute lecture… made no sense. Watched this along with your synapse video and it’s so clear! Keep the physiology videos coming!

  144. Celine Pourmoradi October 17, 2013 at 11:00 am #

    amazing!!!!

  145. smilebeautifulworld October 25, 2013 at 12:23 pm #

    Thank you that’s such a good explanation :) but i have one question .. we have learned that a.p have a property of one way propagation.. so the post synaptic cant receive an a.p if it’s already excited.. right? also the ipsp is also to stabilize the membrane rather then to hypopolarize.. So the question is.. how does the the ipsp stabilizes already excited membrane? I mean the only way for the neuron to recieve a second potential is to be in refractory period .. Hope you understood my confusion.

  146. lina mateeva October 27, 2013 at 7:00 am #

    ok I’m studding bio psychology and for the first time it actually made sense!!! I only wish i found these tutorials sooner bf my test:))))thank you, thank you, thank you!

  147. Dikshhya Acharya October 31, 2013 at 9:59 pm #

    Crazy clip. Superb clip. My pal had been fat. He went from 293 lbs of fat into 212 lbs of absolute muscle mass. I could not believe it! I just signed up myself coz I’m looking to get big muscles. He made use of the Muscle Building Bible (Look in Google)…

  148. kamikazeicecream November 5, 2013 at 5:01 am #

    This is because the IPSP or EPSP we are talking about is on ANOTHER neuron across the synaptic cleft (space). You are right about the refractory period though, just that we are talking about two neurons here, not just one.

  149. Maysa Abboud November 8, 2013 at 1:27 pm #

    what about glutamate receptors?

  150. Oluwatobiloba Omole November 11, 2013 at 2:34 pm #

    that was soooo coooool..thanks bro…

  151. Maha Khan February 11, 2014 at 12:46 am #

    kindly also provide authentic refreneces (from research articles/books)

  152. Alan isaac June 2, 2014 at 9:24 pm #

    Are these receptors and channels actually seen by microscope or is this hypothetical concepts