016 The release of Neurotransmitter

016 The release of Neurotransmitter

Leslie Samuel IBTV, The Nervous System 127 Comments

When the action potential reaches the axon terminals, something needs to happen in order to transfer that signal from one neuron to another.

Watch as Leslie explains the role of neurotransmitters and how their release results in a signal in other cells, organs, or glands.

Enjoy!

Transcript of Todays Episode

Hello and welcome to another episode of Interactive Biology TV, where we’re making biology fun! My name is Leslie Samuel. In this episode, Episode 16, I’m going to be talking about the neurotransmitter. We’ve been talking about the nervous system, we’ve been talking about neurons, and we’ve been talking about the action potential and how that travels along the neurons all the way to the ends of the neurons. What we’re going to do today is we’re going to focus a little more closely at the end of the neurons, the place that we call the axon terminal.

Now, neurons do not exist in isolation. They are interconnected, they connect to other neurons, as you can see right here. There’s a connection here, you can see there’s another connection here. Basically, when there’s a signal in one neuron, that can send a signal to many other neurons or glands or organs. This is the way the nervous system communicates, and there needs to be these connections, and signals need to go from one neuron to the next.

What I’m going to do is I’m going to zoom in on this connection here and we’re going to take a closer look at it. So we’re looking at that connection, and there are a few terms that you need to understand. The connection between the neurons, we call that the synapse. The synapse is the connection between one neuron and another neuron, or between one neuron and another cell, organ, or gland. We are basically talking about the place where neurons connect with other cells.

Another term that you need to know is the synaptic cleft, and the synaptic cleft is basically this space here that’s between the neurons. Most neurons don’t connect physically. There’s a small space between those neurons where they connect and there are some important things that are happening there, and we’re going to look at those things today.

Another term that you need to know would be the synaptic vesicles, and you can see there are a number of vesicles in here. What’s unique about these vesicles is that inside of those vesicles, we have neurotransmitters. You can see examples of neurotransmitters here. This is a neurotransmitter, and we have 3 in here, 2 in here, 1 in here. These are all neurotransmitters.

Another term that we need to be familiar with would be the receptor. The receptor is the protein or the part on the receiving cell that binds to the neurotransmitter. You can see a perfect example of one here.

Some other terminology that’s not on this image is, since we’re calling this the synapse, we have 2 membranes. We have this membrane here, and we have this membrane here. The membrane that comes right before the space, we call the pre-synaptic membrane. So that’s this membrane here. And the membrane that comes after the space, and that would be this membrane here, you guessed it! We call that the post-synaptic membrane. So those are the terms that I want you to be aware of as we go into talking about what happens when the action potential reaches the axon terminal.

We’ve spoken about the action potential, and the action potential travels along the axon. I want you to imagine with me an action potential coming down this axon and reaching the axon terminal. Now, there are a number of things that happen when the action potential reaches the axon terminal. One of the most important things that’s happening is we have voltage-gated calcium channels that open. When voltage-gated calcium channels open, calcium ions that are concentrated outside (I’m going to write Ca++) are going to rush into the cell.

This is a very important event because it causes something that’s very significant. It causes these synaptic vesicles to fuse with the pre-synaptic membrane, and you can see an example of that happening right here. When the synaptic vesicle fuses with the pre-synaptic membrane, that causes the neurotransmitter to be released into the synaptic cleft. You can see an example of a neurotransmitter that’s released right here, and of course, there’s another one right here.

Now, what then happens is also very important. The neurotransmitter binds to the receptor. When the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor, that can cause a signal in the receiving cell. So we can have a signal in this cell because neurotransmitters are being released and that binds to the receptors, and that causes a signal in the receiving cell.

This is how we can go from one neuron to the next neuron. Signals are travelling rapidly and they need to be routed to the right place. The way the neurons are going to communicate with each other is by this process of releasing neurotransmitters. That’s all the content for this video. If you have any questions about it or any comments, go ahead and leave a comment beneath this video in the comment field. I’d be happy to answer your question, or even make a follow-up video to answer your specific question. That’s all for this video, and I’ll see you in the next one.

159 comments
juan rosa
juan rosa

Leslie, I enjoyed theis video on neurotransmitters, you made it easier to understand how a neurotransmitter is released. I was wondering if you would delve into the three most important neurotransmitters, and their types and subclasses. thank you for the tutorials, you are making biology a bit easier and definitely more fun.

ranjana
ranjana

hey i pretty much understood the concept of transmission of neurotransmitter..can you please explain excitatory post synaptic potential and inhibitory with an example.love your site.god bless and thanks!.:)

Dr. Berni
Dr. Berni

the instruction on the neurotransmitter was wonderfully put forth.

Alain Lievin
Alain Lievin

Very helpful video. Are neurotransmitters released intermittently according to the activity of the presynaptic terminal or they are released continuously if the presynaptic neuron is receiving input onto its dendrites.

Michelle Jacobs
Michelle Jacobs

This is really great. Wondering if you are going to do sections on each of the different neurotransmitters and their functions. That would be helpful.

Caitlin
Caitlin

I need to make a drawing that explains the difference between how this normally works and how it works with alcohol. I don't quiet understand what happens with the nervous system with alcohol though. Can you help me?

Chris Hanners
Chris Hanners

Many thanks for this simple explanation. Now if we could only figure out the source of that action potential...

Annalie hall
Annalie hall

sorry i found them. thank you!! these are great. i almost dont want to share with my peers :( but i will.

Annalie hall
Annalie hall

this video was very helpful thank you. you should also add what happens when the neurotransmitter binds to the receptors, and the EPSP's and IPSP's.

Amira Yamamoto
Amira Yamamoto

please do one on neurotransmitters and neuromodulators! your videos are awesome.

Maggie Tsui
Maggie Tsui

thank youuuuu!!!!! great explanations :D

Ghosty Coman
Ghosty Coman

Thank you so much, this makes everything so much easier to understand! I think I'm going to take notes on this at least as much as I did on my chapter.

Neeraj Dwivedi
Neeraj Dwivedi

it really make biology fun i learn something new from your best video

Julie Munoz
Julie Munoz

Thank you so much! This video and the previous videos have helped me a lot!

Polina Korneeva
Polina Korneeva

Thanks a lot, I'm currently doing my psychology A level and your video was a lot of help. I also wanted to ask how do the synaptic vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane. I haven't watched your previous videos so I don't quite understand what exactly the synaptic vesicles are and what is the pre-synaptic membrane made of etc.

christy benhaim
christy benhaim

Thank You soooo much, I got an "A" on my last A&P exam!;~) You explain things very well. Do you have any ...more(?)... interactive lessons? For example clicking on a word in the image to see it defined or labeling exercises?

Annabelle Davis
Annabelle Davis

GOOD DAY, CAN YOU GIVE ME THREE WAYS IN WHICH A NEURONE IS SIMILAR TO OTHER ANIMAL CELLS

micklo1
micklo1

thank you very much. Mr Samuel

Jess R
Jess R

like a boss thanks

Brandon Scherrer
Brandon Scherrer

Thank so much, it's so much easier to understand with a narration and diagram, thank you! I was just wondering how are the Neurotransmitter made? Serotonin is produced for example by exercise, how is it that the serotonin neurotransmitter is produce in neurons?

Allison Galloway
Allison Galloway

Very helpful! can you go into more detail about how protein kinase in here.

Anne W
Anne W

Thank you so much for your videos. They are very helpful! I have a question with regard to the action potential. Is it correct that the action potential is caused by the neurotransmitters bringing EPSP and IPSP where the summation is sufficient to depolarize the membrane to its threshold of exicitation? Is the Action potential also generated by the neurotransmitters binding to ionotropic receptors which cause sodium to rush in? And at last, can you tell me what is the case for Serotonin? Thanks!

naturaloriginal
naturaloriginal

I love your pronunciations and your style of explaining things. For someone who speaks English as a second language , is important to understand clearly (as you wonderful do ) terms and names. I am looking for a lesson with how neurotransmitters are retrieved.

pyro5445
pyro5445

This is a very good video. You explained the process very well. Our Anatomy book made the release of neurotransmitters very unclear because it did not distinguish between the postsynaptic/presynaptic membranes. Thanks for the informative video!

zam0005
zam0005

Thank you so much :) I wonder how people figured all this out in the first place!!

spagetiebal
spagetiebal

Great video! I do have a question: what is the role of magnesium in this process? Thanks in advance!

precious9491
precious9491

You made physio that much more fun and easier to learn. I just may pass my class!

UR1FirstChoice
UR1FirstChoice

You ROCK you are a great teacher and thank you for what you do

Jennis Singla
Jennis Singla

action potential is an all or none concept. for more neurotransmitter to be released you need more action potentials. hope that helps! :)

mez6117
mez6117

what controls the amount of neurotransmitter released?

MisizToni
MisizToni

I loved it thank you do much :D

Kelvin
Kelvin

May I ask what will happen to the neurotransmitters after they have stimulated the channels on the dendrite of the next neuron? Will they go back to the vesicles? If no, how can they deal with the coming next signals????

ehmfrancisco
ehmfrancisco

Release of neurotransmitters usually follows arrival of an action potential at the synapse, but may also follow graded electrical potentials.

ehmfrancisco
ehmfrancisco

Release of neurotransmitters usually follows arrival of an action potential at the synapse, but may also follow graded electrical potentials.

Interactivemedicine
Interactivemedicine

keep posting nervous system videos please, i love your videos so much XD

Interactivemedicine
Interactivemedicine

keep posting nervous system videos please, i love your videos so much XD

cherryfilling1997
cherryfilling1997

Leslie, thank you so much from the bottom of my heart! Ur amazing!

cherryfilling1997
cherryfilling1997

Leslie, thank you so much from the bottom of my heart! Ur amazing!

crzybballer
crzybballer

I liked it when students were INTERACTING in the lectures... :( now is alot more boring than before :(

crzybballer
crzybballer

I liked it when students were INTERACTING in the lectures... :( now is alot more boring than before :(

Leslie Samuel
Leslie Samuel

They are usually broken down by enzymes and then taken back into the presynaptic terminal and reassembled for reuse.

Trackbacks

  1. […] the fact that axons come in and make synaptic connections with the muscle cells. This is called the neuromuscular junction. So, when a signal comes down, and it releases the neurotransmitter, in this case the […]